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Course Descriptions

Biology (Undergraduate) (Graduate)  ♦  Wildlife (Undergraduate) (Graduate)


Biology

Please note: The Biology Department will attempt to consistently maintain the course offerings below, which indicate when courses are to be taught (e.g. Fall, Spring, Even-year Spring, etc.). However, many factors can impact when or if a class will be offered/taught (e.g. a faculty retirement or illness, a course cancellation due to low enrollment, etc.). Therefore, please be aware that there is no guarantee it will be taught at the indicated time. If you have questions or concerns, please contact the Department office. You can view the pattern of course offerings at the bottom of this page.

BIO 100:  Introductory Biology  (3)
Prerequisite: Completion of all academic requirements. The course will deal with introductory principles of biology that are fundamental to an individual’s knowledge as it pertains to the  interrelationships of organisms in the natural world. Topics to be addressed: cellular basis of life, metabolism, genetics, biological diversity, reproduction, evolution, ecology, and environmental biology. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor  requirements. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 101 or 102.  2 Lec/2Lab. Gen. Ed. E-4.

BIO 101:   Essentials of Biology (3) 
ONLINE ONLY. Prerequisite: Completion of all academic readiness requirements. Biological principles and applications as relates to life on earth from the molecular to ecosphere scale; current topics in genetics, evolution, ecology, plant and animal diversity, and human biology will be discussed. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 100 or 102. 2 Lec/2 Lab. Gen. Ed. E-4.

BIO 102:  Inquiry Biology for Teachers (3)
Prerequisite: completion of all academic readiness requirements; pre-teaching or teaching elementary and middle school education majors only or departmental approval. An inquiry-based, conceptual-approach biological sciences course for teaching majors. Topics include the nature of science, cell biology, biodiversity, inheritance, ecology and ecosystems, evolution and adaptation.  May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 100 or 101. 2 Lec/2 Lab. Gen. Ed. E-4.

BIO 111:  Cell and Molecular Biology (4) 
Prerequisite: Completion of all academic readiness requirements. An introduction to fundamental principles of cell and molecular biology as they apply to plants, animals, and microbes; the molecular basis of life, cellular structure and function, genetic and molecular biology.  Designed for biology majors. 3 Lec/2Lab. Gen. Ed. E-4.

BIO 112:  Ecology and Evolution (4) 
Prerequisite: Completion of all academic readiness requirements. An introduction to the fundamental principles of ecology and evolution: interactions among plants, animals, microbes, and their environment, and the diversification of life through evolutionary  processes. Designed for biology majors. 3 Lect/2 Lab. Gen. Ed. E-4.

BIO 171: Human Anatomy (3)  *Will no longer be offered after Summer 2019*
Prerequisite: Completion of all academic readiness requirements. A study of the basic anatomy of the human body and appropriate correlations with body functions . 2 Lec/2 Lab. Gen. Ed. VII (NS).

BIO 271:  Advanced Human Anatomy (3)
Prerequisites: BIO 171. An advanced study of human anatomy. Emphasis is placed on the musculoskeletal and nervous systems and their anatomical and functional relationships. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements. 2 Lec/2 Lab.

BIO 273:  Clinical Microbiology (4)
Prerequisites: BIO 171. A study of microorganisms as causative agents in diseases of humans with emphasis on differentiation and culture, types of diseases, modes of transmission, prophylactic, therapeutic and epidemiological considerations. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements. Credit will not be awarded for both BIO 273 and MLS 209. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 301:  Human Physiology (3) *Will no longer be offered after Fall 2019*
Functions of human life processes at the cellular, tissue, and organ‑system levels of organization with emphasis on homeostatic mechanisms will be considered in this course. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements. Gen. Ed. VII (NS).

BIO 303:  Human Heredity and Society (3) 
Inheritance of human traits, including blood groups, sex and sex‑related traits, lethal factors, mental capacities, and metabolic disorders; pedigrees, family traits,  and population trends. A current background in general biology (BIO 100 or NAT 101) is recommended but not required. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements. Gen. Ed. VII (NS).

BIO 305: Biology of Sex (3) 
Prerequisite: ENG 102, 105(B), HON 102, or departmental approval. Fundamental principles related to human sexual reproduction. Structure, function, control, and coordination of the human reproductive system. Problems associated with fertility, sexuality, birth control, STDs, and human population will be discussed. Fulfills University Wellness requirement.

BIO 307:  Human Anatomy and Physiology I (3)
Prerequisite: Completion of all academic readiness requirements and an ACT composite of 20 or better, OR completion of BIO 100 or BIO 111 with a grade of C or better. A study of the basic anatomy of the human body and appropriate correlations with body functions and processes at the cellular, tissue, and organ-systems level of organization. 2 Lec/2 Lab. Gen. Ed. VII (NS).

BIO 308:   Human Anatomy and Physiology II (3) *Will be offered starting Spring 2020*
Prerequisite: BIO 307. A continuation of Human Anatomy and Physiology I. 2 Lec/2 Lab. Gen. Ed. VII (NS).

BIO 310:  Biology of Aging (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 100 (with a minimum grade of C) or BIO 171 (with a minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. System by system approach to the biological effects of the aging process on the human body. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements in the Department of Biological Sciences. Fulfills University Wellness requirement.

BIO 315:  Genetics (4)
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (with a minimum grade of C) and 112 (with a minimum grade of C). Discussion of Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics, genetic mapping, and population genetics. Emphasis on critical thinking skills and logic through experimental analysis. Laboratory will include experimental manipulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 3 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 316:  Ecology (4) 
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (grade of C or better) and 112 (with a minimum grade of C). Basic concepts and principles as applied to the study of organisms or groups of organisms in their interrelations to each other and to their environments. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 318: General Botany (4) 
Prerequisites: BIO 111 (minimum grade of C) and 112 (minimum grade of C). Structure and functions of vascular plants; morphology, classification, life histories, ecology and evolution of autotrophs, plantlike protists, and fungi. 3 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 319: General Zoology (4)
Prerequisites: BIO 111 (with a minimum grade of C) and 112 (with a minimum grade of C). Morphology, physiology, comparative anatomy, development, life history, evolution, and diversity of animals. 3 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 320:  Principles of Microbiology (4)
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (with a minimum grade of C) and CHE 112 (with a minimum grade of C); or Environmental Health Science major with BIO 111 (C) and CHE 112 (C). A study of bacteria and other microorganisms, their morphology, development and function; techniques of isolation, cultivation and identification; physiology, nutrition, and genetics; role of microbes in medicine, agriculture, and industry. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 331:  Cell Biology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (with a minimum grade of B) and CHE 112 (with a minimum grade of B) or departmental approval. An introduction to the structure and function of plant and animal cells, with emphasis on the structure and function of cell organelles. An overview of molecular techniques use in the study of cellular metabolism.

BIO 332: Careers in Biomedical Sciences (1) 
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (with a minimum grade of C) and CHE 112 (C or better). Students will explore the diverse range of career options within the biomedical sciences, develop job acquisition skills, and gain an appreciation for biomedical ethics. This course requires experiential learning through an internship/shadowing experience. 1 Lec

BIO 335:  Plant Systematics (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (minimum grade of C), 112 (minimum grade of C), and 318 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. Identification, classification, and phylogeny of vascular plants; principles of taxonomy. 1 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 342:  Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4) 
Prerequisite: BIO 112 (minimum grade of C), and 319 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. Evolutionary relationships of the classes of vertebrates are investigated through their anatomy. Laboratory studies of organs and systems of vertebrate animals primarily compare the dogfish shark, the mudpuppy (Necturus), and the cat. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 348:  Vertebrate Physiology (3)
Prerequisite: BIO 331 (minimum grade of C) or BIO 111 (C or better); CHE 112 (minimum grade of C) and admission to the teacher education program; or departmental approval. Command of human physiology through an integrated study of the physical, chemical, and cellular aspects of physiological systems across vertebrates. Group work and critical thinking will be stressed utilizing human case studies and computer simulations. 3 lec.

BIO 349:  Applied Learning in Biology (.5‑8) 
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (C or better) or BIO 112 (C or better). Work in placements related to academic studies. One to eight hours credit per semester or summer. Total hours: eight, associate; sixteen, baccalaureate. A minimum of 80 hours of employment required for each semester hour of academic credit. Three hours may be applied to the major only. May not be used to satisfy minor requirements.

BIO 349 A-N:  Cooperative Study: Biology (1‑8)
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (C or better) or BIO 112 (C or better).Work in placements related to academic studies. One to eight hours credit per semester or summer. Total hours: eight, associate; sixteen, baccalaureate. A  minimum of 80 hours of employment required for each semester hour of academic credit. Three hours may be applied to the major only. May not be used to satisfy minor requirements.

BIO 371:  Neuroanatomy (3) I, II
Prerequisite: BIO 171 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. Anatomy of the nervous system and the relationships to functions of systems of the human body. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements in the Department of Biological Sciences. 2 Lec/2 Lab.

BIO 375W: Microbes and Food (3)
Prerequisites: ENG 102 or 105 (B) or HON 102 and BIO 111 with a C or better or departmental approval. . An overview of food-borne illness and food safety, the role of microbes in food production and the relationships between diet and the human microbiome. (Offered Online).

BIO 378:  Human Physiology Laboratory (1)
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIO 301 with a C or better or departmental approval.  A series of experiments will be presented which will allow students to demonstrate some of the typical physiological  processes of animals as these relate to human physiology. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements. 2 Lab. Gen. Ed. 13 with BIO 301.
 

BIO 495:  Evolutionary Application and Theory (1)
Prerequisite: Senior standing in Biology, Biomedical Sciences, or Wildlife Management.  Discussion of topics relating to evolutionary theory with special emphasis on the impact of evolution in everyday life. This is a course that builds upon evolutionary concepts learned throughout the biology curriculum. 2 Lab.

BIO 500: Environmental Issues (3)
Prerequisite: Senior Standing; BIO 100 (grade of C or better), or 102 (grade of C or better), or 112 (grade of C or better). Students will learn to identify, investigate and evaluate environmental issues as well as plan appropriate action based on their analysis. Credit will not be awarded for students who have credit for ENV 500. 

BIO 514:  Evolution (3) 
Prerequisites: BIO 112 with a C or better and BIO 315 with a C or better.  A study of Darwinism, the history of life in the context of contemporary biology, and the evidences and mechanisms of evolutionary change, with  particular emphasis on human evolution and the challenges of teaching and understanding evolution in modern society.

BIO 520 Invasive Species Management (3)
Prerequisites: Senior standing. BIO 316 (C or better) or department approval. Examination of the circumstances that allow introduced species to become invasive. Reviews the current approaches used to reduce the incidence and impact of invasive species.

BIO 521:  Plant Ecology (4) 
Prerequisites: BIO 316 and 318 with a C or better or BIO 335 with a C or better or departmental approval. Ecological concepts and principles relevant to eastern terrestrial ecosystems. Required Fall Break field trip. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 525:  Aquatic and Wetland Plants (3) 
Prerequisites: BIO 111, 112, and 318 with a C or better or departmental approval. Collection, systematics, distribution, ecology, and reproduction of aquatic and wetland vascular plants. 1 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 527:  Immunology (3) 
Prerequisites: BIO 320 and CHE 361 with a C or better or departmental approval. Characteristics of immune reactions at the molecular level and in vivo. Nature and interactions of  antigens and antibodies, and allergic phenomena. 2 Lec/3 Lab. Cross-listed with BIO 727.

BIO 528:  Virology (3)
Prerequisite: BIO 320 with a C or better or departmental approval. Fundamentals of classification, structure, and pathogenesis of viruses. Host‑virus interactions and their applications to medicine and  industry. Viral related areas of immunology, cell culture procedures, and applications will be introduced. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 529:  Microbiology in Everyday Life (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 100 with a C or better or 102 with a C or better or BIO 111 with a C or better or 112 with a C or better or departmental approval.  Microbes in medicine, agriculture, and industry; emphasis on teaching microbiology in the classroom. Course open only to Biology-Teaching or Education majors.

BIO 531:  Principles of Molecular Biology I (4)
Prerequisites: BIO 320 with a C or better or 331 with a C or better and CHE361 with a C or better or departmental approval. An in‑depth study of the structure, function, and biochemistry of nucleic acids and proteins.  Laboratory experiences will involve manipulations of DNA and protein molecules for the purpose of isolation, purification, and structural modification. 2 Lec/4 Lab. Credit will not be awarded for both BIO 531 and 531S.

BIO 532:  Conservation Biology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 316 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. Examination of principles and practices of conserving global biological diversity. Emphasis on causes, consequences and rates of extinction, as well as the natural resource planning and policies used to mitigate the loss of biodiversity. Focus will be given to the application of philosophical, biological, sociological, legal, and on-the-ground management principles for the conservation of genes, species and ecosystems.

BIO 533:   Bioinformatics: Principles and Applications (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 315 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. An exposure to the theory and practice of bioinformatics, as they relate to laboratory (Cell and Molecular Biology, Biochemistry) and field  (Evolutionary and Population Biology) research applications in the life sciences. Discussion and utilization of the prevalent approaches and methodologies  currently used in Bioinformatics.

BIO 535:  Pathogenic Microbiology (4) 
Prerequisite: BIO 320 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. Studies in the field of advanced clinical microbiology with emphasis on morphology, cultivation, biochemistry, and serological identification of bacterial diseases; aspects of pathogenesis, epidemiology, and control measures of bacterial and mycotic diseases. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 536:  Dendrology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (minimum grade of C), 112 (minimum grade of C) and 318 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. Woody plant taxonomy with emphasis on field identification of trees and shrubs in summer and winter conditions; habitats and  distributions; economic importance; forest regions of North America. 1 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 542:  Freshwater Invertebrates (3) 
Prerequisites: BIO 112 (minimum grade of C) and 319 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. Collection, systematics, distribution, behavior, ecology, and life histories of freshwater invertebrates. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 546:  Histology (4) 
Prerequisites: Prerequisite: BIO 331(minimum grade of C) and 348 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. This course will provide students with an essential understanding of functional morphology in vertebrate tissues and organs. Pathology examples will be used to explain the cellular and molecular basis of normal function  related to structure. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 547:  Comparative Vertebrate Embryology (4) 
Prerequisite: BIO 342 (minimum grade of C) or 348 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. Gametogenesis, fertilization, morphogenesis, and organogenesis of the frog, bird, and mammal. Particular emphasis is placed on mammalian development. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 549:  Neurobiology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 331 (C or better). A discussion of the cellular architecture of the nervous system, with emphasis on the biochemical and electrophysiological properties of neurons and glia that control cognition, learning and memory, emotion, sensation and perception, endocrine regulation, and neurological illness. An overview of molecular research methods used to investigate neural function.

BIO 550:  Animal Behavior (4) 
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (minimum grade of C) and 112 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. Advanced study of behavior with emphasis on inherited behavioral patterns in relation to the evolution and ecology of animals. 3 Lec/2 Lab.

BIO 553:  Mammalogy (3)
Prerequisites:  BIO 111 (minimum grade of C) and 112 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. Classification, natural history, field methods, and distribution of mammals. 1 Lec/4 Lab. Requires participation in an extended field trip outside of normal class hours.

BIO 554:  Ornithology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 111 (minimum grade of C) and 112 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. Avian biology with emphasis on field identification of local avifauna, anatomy, physiology, ecology, evolution, migration, economic importance, distribution, and behavioral patterns. Early morning field trips required. 2 Lec/4 Lab

BIO 555:  Behavioral Ecology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 316 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. How behavior is influenced by natural selection in relation to ecological conditions. Emphasis on quantitative and experimental methods and on integrating theoretical ideas with field and laboratory evidence.

BIO 556:  Herpetology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 112 (minimum grade of C) and 319 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. Natural history of the amphibians and reptiles including taxonomy, general ecology, behavior, distribution, breeding, and food habits. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 557:  Ichthyology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 112 (minimum grade of C) and 319 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. A phylogenetic examination of morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversification of fishes of the world, with special attention to the Appalachian fauna. Laboratory devoted to anatomy, identification, and reproductive strategies. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 558:  Freshwater Ecology (3)
Prerequisite: BIO 316 (minimum grade of C) or departmental approval. Ecology of lakes and streams with special reference to physical, chemical, and biological factors. To include a variety  of methods and instruments. 2 Lec/3 Lab‑Disc.

BIO 561:  Fisheries Biology (3)
Prerequisites: BIO 112 (minimum grade of C) and 316 (minimum grade of C); or departmental approval. Methods for assessment and analysis of fish populations and aquatic habitats, including age and growth, fecundity, food habits, and yield. Emphasis on economic and  ecological importance of management decisions. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 590: Ecology for Teachers (3) 
Cross-listed as ENV 590. Prerequisite: Senior Standing; BIO 100 (grade of C or better), 102 (grade of C or better), or 112 (grade of C or better). This course introduces ecology and the environment through an interdisciplinary approach beginning with the physical environment progressing to whole ecosystems and onto analyses of ecological sustainability. Classroom strategies and techniques will be modeled. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for ENV 590 or CNM 599.

BIO 595 Topics in Field Biology: _______ (3)
Cross-listed as ENV 590. Prerequisite: Senior Standing; BIO 100 (grade of C or better), 102 (grade of C or better), or 112 (grade of C or better). This course introduces ecology and the environment through an interdisciplinary approach beginning with the physical environment progressing to whole ecosystems and onto analyses of ecological sustainability. Classroom strategies and techniques will be modeled

BIO 598:  Special Problems (1‑3) 
Prerequisites: junior or senior standing; students must have the independent study proposal form approved by faculty supervisor and department chair prior to enrollment. Independent research in the biological sciences, under the guidance of a faculty member, which allows students to design a research problem and make experimental observations and conclusions. May be retaken to a maximum of six hours.

BIO 599:  Topics in Biological Sciences: _____ (1‑6) 
Prerequisites: Senior standing, BIO 111 (minimum grade of C),112 (minimum grade of C), and departmental approval. Special topics in the biological sciences of current interest to faculty and students may be presented through lecture, discussion, lab and field experiences, and reports. May be retaken to a maximum of nineteen hours, provided subject matter differs each time.

BIO 700: Environmental Issues (3) 
Cross-listed as ENV 700. Students will learn to identify, investigate and evaluate environmental issues as well as plan appropriate action based on their analysis. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 500 or ENV 500 or 700.

BIO 714:  Evolution (3) 
A study of Darwinism, the history of life in the context of contemporary biology,  and the evidences and mechanisms of evolutionary change, with particular emphasis on human evolution and the challenges of teaching and understanding evolution in modern society.

BIO 720: Invasive Species Management (3) 
Examination of the circumstances that allow introduced species to become invasive. Reviews the current approaches used to reduce the incidence and impact of invasive species. Credit willl not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 599/799 Special Topics: Invasive Species Management.

BIO 721:  Plant Ecology (4)
Ecological concepts and principles relevant to eastern terrestrial ecosystems. Required weekend field trips and fall break field trip.  2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 725:  Aquatic and Wetland Plants (3) 
Collection, systematics, distribution, ecology, and reproduction of aquatic and wetland vascular plants. 1 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 727:  Immunology (3) 
Prerequisites: BIO 320, CHE 361 or instructor approval. Cross-listed with BIO 527. Characteristics of immune reactions at the molecular level and in vivo. Nature and  interactions of antigens and antibodies, and allergic phenomena. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 728:  Virology (3) 
Fundamentals of classification, structure, and pathogenesis of viruses. Host-virus interactions and their  applications to medicine and industry. Related areas of immunology, cell culture procedures and applications will be introduced. 2 Lec/3  Lab.

BIO 729:  Microbiology in Everyday Life (3) 
Methods for assessment and analysis of fish populations and aquatic habitats, including age and growth, fecundity, food habits, and yield. Emphasis on economic and  ecological importance of management decisions. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 731:  Principles of Molecular Biology I (4) 
An in-depth study of the structure, function, and biochemistry of nucleic acids and  proteins. Laboratory experiences will involve the manipulation of DNA and protein molecules for the purpose of isolation, purification, and  structure modification. 2 Lec/4 Lab. Credit will not be awarded for both BIO 731 and BIO 731S.

BIO 732:  Conservation Biology (3) 
Examination of principles and practices of conserving global biological diversity. Emphasis on causes, consequences and rates of extinction, as well as the natural resource planning and policies used to mitigate the loss of biodiversity.  Focus will be given to the application of philosophical, biological, sociological, legal, and on-the-ground management principles for the conservation of genes, species and ecosystems.

BIO 733:  Bioinformatics: Principles and Applications (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 315. An exposure to the theory and practice of bioinformatics as they relate to laboratory (Cell and Molecular Biology, Biochemistry) and field (Evolutionary and Population Biology) research applications in the life sciences. Discussion and utilization of the prevalent approaches and methodologies currently used in Bioinformatics.

BIO 735:  Pathogenic Microbiology (4) 
Formerly BIO 835. Prerequisite: BIO 320 or instructor approval. Studies in the field of advanced clinical microbiology with emphasis on  morphology, cultivation, biochemistry, and serological identification of bacterial diseases; aspects of pathogenesis, epidemiology, and  control measures of bacterial and mycotic diseases. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 736:  Dendrology (3) 
Woody plant taxonomy with emphasis on field identification of trees and shrubs in summer and winter conditions; habitats and distributions; economic importance; forest regions of North America. 1 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 742:  Freshwater Invertebrates (3) 
Collection, systematics, distribution, behavior, ecology, and life histories of freshwater  invertebrates. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 746:  Histology (4) 
This course will provide students with an essential understanding of functional morphology in vertebrate tissues and organs. Pathology examples will be used to explain the cellular and molecular basis of normal function related to structure. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 747:  Comparative Vertebrate Embryology (4) 
Gametogenesis, fertilization, morphogenesis, and organogenesis of the frog, bird, and mammal. Particular emphasis is placed on mammalian development. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 749:  Neurobiology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 331 (C or better). A discussion of the cellular architecture of the nervous system, with emphasis on the biochemical and electrophysiological properties of neurons and glia that control cognition, learning and memory, emotion, sensation and perception, endocrine regulation, and neurological illness. An overview of molecular research methods used to investigate neural function.

BIO 750: Animal Behavior (4) 
Advanced study of behavior with emphasis on inherited behavioral patterns in relation to the evolution and ecology of animals. 3 Lec/2  Lab.

BIO 753: Mammalogy (3) 
Classification, natural history, field methods, and distribution of mammals. Requires participation in an extended field trip outside of normal class hours. 1 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 754:  Ornithology (3) 
Avian biology with emphasis on field identification of local avifauna, anatomy, physiology, ecology, evolution, migration, economic  importance, distribution, and behavioral patterns. Early morning field trips required. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 755:  Behavioral Ecology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 316 or instructor approval. How behavior is influenced by natural selection in relation to ecological conditions. Emphasis  on quantitative and experimental methods an on integrating theoretical ideas with field and laboratory experience.

BIO 756:  Herpetology (3) 
Natural history of the amphibians and reptiles including taxonomy, general ecology, behavior, distribution, breeding, and food habits. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 757:  Ichthyology (3)
A phylogenetic examination of morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversifications of fishes in the world, with  special attention to the Appalachian fauna. Laboratory devoted to anatomy, identification, and reproductive strategies. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 758:  Freshwater Ecology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 316 or instructor approval. Ecology of lakes, streams with reference to physical, chemical, and biological factors. To  include a variety of methods and instruments. 2 Lec/3 Lab-Disc.

BIO 761:  Fisheries Biology (3) 
Methods for assessment and analysis of fish populations and aquatic habitats, including age and growth, fecundity, food habits, and yield.  Emphasis on economic and ecological importance of management decisions. Optional weekend field trips. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

BIO 790: Ecology for Teachers (3)
Cross-listed as ENV 790. This course introduces ecology and the environment through an interdisciplinary approach beginning with the physical environment progressing to whole ecosystems and onto analyses of ecological sustainability. Classroom strategies and techniques will be modeled. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 590 or ENV 590 or 790.

BIO 798:  Special Problems (1-3) 
Prerequisite: students must have the independent study proposal form approved by the faculty supervisor and department chair prior to  enrollment. Independent research in the biological sciences, under the guidance of a faculty member, which allows students to design a research problem and make experimental observations and conclusions. May be retaken to a maximum of four hours.

BIO 799:  Topics in Biological Sciences: _____ (1-6) 
Prerequisite: departmental approval. Special topics in the biological sciences of current interest to faculty and students may be presented through lecture, discussion, lab and field experiences, and report. May be retaken to a maximum of nine hours, provided subject matter differs each time.

BIO 800: Biology and Ethics (1) 
Responsibilities and ethics of research and teaching in the biological sciences. 2 Lab.

BIO 801:  Scientific Literature and Writing in Biology (2) 
Directed readings in biology designed to acquaint the student with the major sources of literature, the delimitation of problems, note  taking, the making of bibliographies, and the writing of scientific articles.

BIO 806:  Aquatic Entomology (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 341 or 355 or instructor approval. To develop an understanding of, and an appreciation for, aquatic insects. Techniques  on collecting as well as the biology, ecology, and systematics of each of the aquatic insect orders will be considered. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 810:  Biostatistics (3) 
Statistical analysis of biological data. Students participate in the taking and processing of data by use of well established statistical  techniques. 2 Lec/2 Lab-Disc.

BIO 816:  Biogeography (3) 
Physical and biotic factors influencing the evolution, diversity and distribution of Earth’s biota; ecogeographic principles, patterns and  theories related to the diversity and distributions of organisms.

BIO 820: Principles of Pharmacology: Molecular Drug Targets and Therapeutics (3) 
An in-depth study of how drugs interact and alter biological systems in the body. The concepts of drug metabolism, physiological response, and therapy will be emphasized. 3 Lec.

BIO 821: Applications in Flow Cytometry (3) 
This course focuses on principles, applications and quality assurance of flow cytometry in research and clinical use in immunology, hematology and transplantation. Emphasis is placed on the biological and physical principles underlying flow cytometry. 2 Lec/2 Lab.

BIO 831:  Molecular Regulation (3) 
Discussion and experimental manipulation of transcriptional/translational regulation in eukaryotes/ prokaryotes with reliance on the  current literature as reference. Coverage of regulatory mechanisms and experimental approaches. 2 Lec/2 Lab.

BIO 839:  Applied Learning in Biology (3-6) 
Prerequisite: departmental approval. Work under faculty and field supervisors in a cooperative job experience related to student’s academic  studies. Credit varies with hours of employment; three to six hours per semester or summer. May be retaken at the discretion of  the department or college involved. A minimum of eighty hours of work is required for each academic credit. Credit does not apply toward  the M.S. degree requirements.

BIO 839 A-F:  Cooperative Study: Biology (3-6) 
Prerequisite: departmental approval. Work under faculty and field supervisors in a cooperative job experience related to student’s academic  studies. Credit varies with hours of employment; three to six hours per semester or summer. May be retaken at the discretion of  the department or college involved. A minimum of eighty hours of work is required for each academic credit. Credit does not apply toward  the M.S. degree requirements.

BIO 845:  Vertebrate Physiological Ecology (3)
Comparative study of physiological mechanisms of vertebrates in response to changing environmental conditions. Topics emphasized  include temperature adaptation, color change, orientation, and biological rhythms. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 846: Population Ecology (3)
Theoretical and applied study of size and organization of animal and plant populations and the physical and biological factors affecting  spatial and temporal patterns.

BIO 848:  Aquatic Ecosystems (3) 
Prerequisite: BIO 558 or 758 or instructor approval. Modern methods for analysis of biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. To include  fieldwork involving various methods, and the calculation and discussion of currently used metrics. 2 Lec/3 Lab.

BIO 849:  Field Methods in Ecology (3) 
Field sampling techniques and methods of observation applicable to describing terrestrial plant and animal communities. Field data  utilized to develop an environmental impact statement. 6 Lab/Disc.

BIO 850:  Dynamics of Ecosystems (2) 
Energy flow, nutrient cycling, and interrelationships among organisms and environments in terrestrial ecosystems; introduction to ecosystem models and modeling.

BIO 880:  Current Review of Biology (3
Prerequisite: BIO 801 or departmental approval. Summary and critical evaluation of current research in a particular area of biology, written  in consultation with faculty advisor. Required of graduate students in non-thesis program. Cannot be used to meet requirements in the  thesis program.

BIO 881:  Independent Study (1-4)
Prerequisite: Student must have the independent study proposal form approved by faculty supervisor and department chair prior to enrollment. Advanced research in the biological sciences under the guidance of a faculty member, which allows students to design a research problem and make experimental observations and conclusions. May be retaken to a maximum of four semester hours. Credit will not be given to students enrolled in the M.S. Biology thesis program.

BIO 891:  Thesis Research (1-6) 
The accomplishment of an independent research project, in consultation with a faculty advisor, for the preparation of a thesis as part of  the requirements for the M.S. degree in Biology. May be retaken to a maximum of six hours.

BIO 891C:  Continuation of Thesis Research (1-9) 
Prerequisite: departmental approval. The continuation of an independent research project, in consultation with a faculty advisor, for the preparation  of a thesis as part of the requirements for the M.S. degree in Biology. May be retaken as necessary to complete research thesis.  A student must have registered for six hours of BIO 891 before registering for BIO 891C. May not be used to satisfy degree program  requirements.


WILDLIFE

WLD 317: Conservation of Wildlife Resources (3) 
Cross-listed as ENV 317. Prerequisites: ENG 102 or 105 (B) or HON 102.  Introduction to the principles and practices of conservation of plants and animals; requirements and values of wildlife resources; impact of human activities on resources. May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements. Credit will only be awarded for students who have credit for ENV 317. 

WLD 380:  Wildlife Law & Law Enforcement (3) 
Prerequisite: ENG 102 or 105(B) or HON 102.  Discussion of pertinent state and federal wildlife laws and how law enforcement impacts wildlife management.

WLD 381:  Principles of Wildlife Management (3) 
Prerequisite or Corequisite BIO 316; or departmental approval. Basic principles of wildlife management and their application to current management issues.Credit will not be awarded for BIO 381.

WLD 382:  Wildlife Population Analysis  (4)
Prerequisites or corequisites: BIO 316, STA 215 or STA 270, and Wilidlife Management major; or departmental approval. Quantitiative population ecology of vertebrates, with a focus on sampling and analysis of field data applicable to wildlife conservation. Credit will not be awarded for both WLD 382W and BIO 382W. 2 Lec/4 Lab.

WLD 489W:  Wildlife Research and Writing  (3) 
Prerequisites: WLD 382, STA 215 or 270, junior or senior status, ENG 102 or 102R or ENG 105(B) or HON 102; and Wildlife Management major. Students will design and execute a research project. Emphasis placed on (a) writing a research proposal, and (b) writing a final project report in the format of a manuscript for publication. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for WLD 489.

WLD 583: Game Species Management (4) 
Prerequisites or corequisites: Senior standing; WLD 381 (C or better); or departmental approval. Biology and ecology of the major game species found in North America with emphasis on current management practices and problems. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 599/799 Special Topics: Game Species Management.

WLD 584: Upland Wildlife Management (4) 
Prerequisite: WLD 381 or departmental approval. Ecological principles and management strategies to preserve and enhance forest and grassland wildlife and their habitats. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 584.

WLD 585: Wildlife Resource Policy and Administration (3) 
Prerequisite or corequisite: WLD 381; or departmental approval. Discussion of state, regional, national, and international policies and agencies which impact management of wildlife resources; with emphasis in North America. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 585.

WLD 586: Wetland Wildlife Management (4) 
Prerequisite: BIO 316 and WLD 381. Ecology and management of migratory and resident wetland wildlife populations and their habitats, with a focus on waterfowl. 2 Lec/4 Lab.  Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 586.

WLD 587: Urban Wildlife Management (3) 
Prerequisites or corequisites: BIO 316 and WLD 381; or departmental approval. The strategies employed to manage urban wildlife and prevent/control animal damage in North America will be discussed. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 587.

WLD 599: Topics in Wildlife Management (1-6) 
Special topics in wildlife management of current interest to faculty and students will be presented through lecture, discussion, and reports. May be retaken to a maximum of 6 hours, provided the subject matter differs each time.

WLD 783: Game Species Management (3) 
Biology and ecology of the major game species found in North America with emphasis on current management practices and problems. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 599/799 Special Topics: Game Species Management.

WLD 784: Upland Wildlife Management (4) 
Ecological principles and management strategies to preserve and enhance forest and grassland wildlife and their habitats. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 784.

WLD 785: Wildlife Resource Policy and Administration (3) 
Formerly BIO 785. Discussion of state, regional, national, and international policies and agencies which impact management of wildlife resources; with emphasis in North America. 

WLD 786: Wetland Wildlife Management (4) 
Formerly BIO 786. Ecology and management of migratory and resident wetland wildlife populations and their habitats, with a focus on waterfowl. 2 Lec/4 Lab. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 786.

WLD 787: Urban Wildlife Management (3) 
Formerly BIO 787. The strategies employed to manage urban wildlife and prevent/control animal damage in North America will be discussed. Credit will not be awarded to students who have credit for BIO 787.

WLD 799: Topics in Wildlife Management (1-6) 
Special topics in wildlife management of current interest to faculty and students will be presented through lecture, discussion, and reports. May be retaken to a maximum of 6 hours, provided the subject matter differs each time.

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